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Ankle sprains are due to twisting type injuries to the foot. The ligaments or fibrous bands that hold the ankle joint are either stretched or torn. In severe ankle sprains, one of the ankle bones may also be broken.

Any ankles sprain that hurts more than a few days should be X-Rayed to rule out fractures or severe ligament damage.

We can then treat the painful ankle to give you relief, prevent further injury, and prevent a chronic weak ankle. If the injury is severe enough or the condition persists, surgery may be required to repair the damaged ligaments and joints.


Athlete’s Foot is a very common infection of the foot. It is caused by simple fungus. This fungus can cause red, cracked skin which may itch or burn, or weeping water filled blisters on the foot. It may also cause a white wet irritation between the toes. In addition, infection may occur in the toenails.

This condition is contagious. It can be picked up or transferred almost anywhere. Athlete’s Foot is often transferred between members of the same family.

Untreated Athlete’s Foot can lead to sever bacterial infections, especially in diabetics and patients with circulatory problems. Therefore, prompt treatment by a podiatrist is recommended to cure this disease and prevent reinfection of the patient or members of his or her family.


A bunion is the movement of the great toe towards the second toe with a “bump on the bone” appearing on the inside of the foot. There are many causes for bunions. Poor posture, heredity, and improper shoes are only few of the causes.

A bunion is a progressive problem. The longer it exists, the more the great toe moves over and the larger the bump appears. The bunion can be very painful. It can make the foot very unattractive and may cause the bunion joint to become arthritic or even dislocate.

When the bunion becomes severe, the crooked great toe and enlarge bump will crowd the lesser toes in a shoe. This can cause the patient to walk improperly and lead to arch, leg or back pain.

There are many ways to correct a bunion. Dr. Rivard will study your feet and the way you walk to determine what caused you to develop a bunion. Once he determines the cause, he is able to best choose the procedure that will correct your condition. It may also be necessary to follow up the surgery with foot supports to prevent the problem from recurring.



Calluses are caused primarily by improper weight distribution through the feet during walking. Certain bones in the forefoot have to carry more weight and as a result, nature builds a callus formation to protect the skin. Occasionally a deep-seated corn appears over the bone instead of a callus. This causes extreme pain and may make the patient limp, miss work, dread the need to take a walk, go shopping, or perform the simplest task that requires standing on the foot.

This condition is very resistant to treatment. Trimming the growth gives only temporary relief. Frequent care may make the patient fairly comfortable. Foot supports may be used to redistribute the weight. When trimming, bandaging and foot supports do no t produce the desired results or the condition is very sever, minor surgery can raise the affected bone so the weight is distributed equally and the pain relieved.



Painful corns on the toes have probably caused more foot pain and misery than any other single problem. The most common cause is a hammered or crooked toe that will not lie flat in a shoe. Often a bony spur or enlargement will contribute to this problem. When the shoe cannot fit comfortably over the toe, the patient suffers the agony of a vise-like squeeze of the skin between the prominent bone or bone spur and the shoe.

When changing shoes or paring the corn does not give relief, there are minor surgical procedures your podiatrist can perform to cure this condition.



A soft corn is a corn between any two toes that becomes moist and macerated due to the pinching of the web of the toes. It is often confused with athlete’s foot between the toes. If the condition persists, Dr. Rivard can remodel the underlying cause, which is a bone spur and give you permanent relief.


The same fungus that causes athlete’s foot can also infect the toenails. It cases the nails to become hard, think, and discolored. Occasionally the nail will have a worm-eaten appearance. The fungus will spread to other toenails, to other areas of the foot, or to the fingernails. Expert treatment by your podiatrist is needed to correct this condition. In severe cases, the whole toenail may have to be removed to eliminate the fungus and prevent its spreads. New oral medication has also proven successful as a treatment.



Pain beneath the heel bone is very disabling. It can be caused by injury, spurs on the heel bone, bursitis, arch strain, or pressure on the nerves under the heel bone. Every time you step down, while walking, the whole weight of the body is concentrated on the heel.

Often the causes of heel pain can be treated by medications, injections, or foot supports. If these treatments fail to relieve the condition, then the source of pain can be corrected surgically.



This condition is seen as a painful swelling behind the heel bone where the large leg tendon (Achilles’ Tendon) attaches. It is due to a bursitis and may become quite firm and fibrous. In advanced cases, it may protrude from the back of the heel and become irritated from rubbing against a shoe. The bump may be as large as half a walnut.

This condition is caused by a variation of the normal shape of the heel bone. Permanent relief can be obtained by removing the swollen tissue or by re-shaping the bump on the heel bone. Occasionally, the surgery will be followed up by foot supports to prevent this problem from recurring.



This tumor is caused by a small nerve trapped between two bones in the foot which  irritates the nerve and causes it to enlarge. The usual symptoms are:

  1. burning and stinging between the toes
  2. a knife like pain that comes and goes in the toe or foot
  3. numbness or tingling of the toes
  4. a sudden cramp or pain in the foot that causes a person to remove his shoe and massage the foot to relieve the pain

Injections and/or foot supports sometimes relieve this problem but he only permanent relief is minor surgery to remove the growth.



A tailor’s bunion is a small bunion on the outer side of the foot just behind the fifth toe. Dr. Rivard can easily correct this painful problem by reducing the bony enlargement.



This condition is often confused with ingrown toenail, but on close examination the trouble is located under the nail, rather than in the corners. Usually nothing is visible to the naked eye but an X-ray will frequently show a spur on the bone under the nail. Therefore any pressure on or around the nail causes pain. This can be permanently corrected by the removal of the sharp pointed bone spur.



Warts are painful benign growths often found in the deep layers of the skin on various parts of the foot. They have the ability to spread to other parts of the foot or body if unchecked.

Warts are caused by a virus that enters he body through a break in the skin. Warts are most common among children but they can occur at any age. They can be contagious and therefore should be treated as soon as possible. It is important to remember that special care must be taken in removing warts in order to prevent a painful scar from forming. Dr. Rivard is especially skillful in removing these growths.